The Hyksos (Amalekites) seem to have invaded Egypt shortly after the Exodus which occurred at the end of the 13th dynasty. The Hyksos (Amalekites) may even have crossed paths with the departing Israelites shortly after Moses and the Israelites crossed the Red Sea at Rephidim (Exodus 17:8-16 ). [1]

Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. When Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobeknefru had to become pharaoh. She only lived for 4 years (possibly 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep as a result of the Exodus (1446BC). This brought about the end of the 13th dynasty. Egypt became vulnerable to invasion as a result of plagues and the loss of it’s leader, it’s army, it’s slaves and it’s chariots. (See Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt)

Sequenre Tao - second last Pharaoh of the seventh dynasty.  Father of Kahmose who lead a rebellion against the Hyksos and successfully evicted them from lower Egypt.  Sequenre was also the father of Ahmose who founded the 18th dynasty (the New Kingdom) of Egypt.

Sequenre Tao – second last Pharaoh of the seventh dynasty. Father of Kahmose who lead a rebellion against the Hyksos and successfully evicted them from lower Egypt. Sequenre was also the father of Ahmose who founded the 18th dynasty (the New Kingdom) of Egypt.

The Hyksos (Amalekites) took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period). The Hyksos were ‘foreigners’ to Egypt and are thought to have originated in Arabia. The word ‘Hyc’ meant ‘Shepherd’ and ‘sos’ meant ‘king’, thus the word ‘Hyksos’ meant ‘Shepherd King’.[2] They were nomadic herdsmen. They had a reputation of being very cruel and destructive.[2] The Egyptians called them ‘Amu’. The Hebrews called them the ‘Amalekites’. Some Ancient Arabic manuscripts record an invasion of Egypt by the ‘Amalekites’[2] They were able to take over Lower Egypt with very little resistance. [2] [3]

The Hyksos Ruled over Lower Egypt from their fortress at Avaris situated on Egypt’s border. They maintained strong garrisons throughout the country and subjugated the regional Nomarchs. Here the Shepherd Kings received tribute from the regional governors and their (Nomes). The princes of the nomes were treated in a distainful manner as described in the Sallier Papyrus I.[4] Apopi II (Agog II / Agag) use to send humiliating demands to Seqenenre in Thebes. Seqenenre was arrested and brought to AvarisSeqenenre‘s son Kahmose lead a rebellion in which the Hyksos were eventually defeated with the help of King Saul from Israel. The Hyksos / Amalekites were forced to leave Egypt. Ahmose I, brother of Kahmose, son of Seqenenre became the first pharaoh of the New Kingdom / 18th dynasty. It was Saul who captured Apopi II (Agag) alive and all but anihilated the Hyksos / Amalekites after they left Egypt. Apopi II/ Agag was taken to Samuel who put him to death.[4]

The ancient historian Manetho attributes 4 dynasties to the Hyksos (dynasties 14-17). [1] Dynasties 15, at least, was synonymous with Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt. [5]

The 16th & 17th dynasties were contemporary with the 15th dynasty (Lower Egypt); but in different parts of the country (Upper Egypt).

The Hyksos were eventually defeated in an uprising lead by the family of Ahmose I from Upper Egypt. Ahmose I lost his father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose fighting the Hyksos. The Hyksos were forced to leave Egypt and Ahmose I (Nebpehtyre) became the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (which was the beginning of New Kingdom of Egypt as it is known). Ahmose I became the pharaoh at a very young age and was coregent with his mother Queen Aahotep in the early part of his reign.

As the Hyksos were leaving Egypt and looking for a new home, they appear to have had another encounter with the Israelites when Saul and David were ruling. [1]

The rule of the Hyksos constitutes most of Egypt’s second intermediate period (when foreigners ruled between the end of the Middle Kingdom (12-13th dynasty) and the beginning of the New Kingdom (18th dynasty)).

The Hyksos ruled in Lower Egypt for a period of around 400 years starting soon after the 13th dynasty when the Exodus of the Jews occurred. This period is contemporary with the Israelites 40 years in the wilderness and the time of the Judges in Israel. It fits with the Hyksos being the Amalekites of the Bible in every respect.

The Amalekites / Hyksos were rulers that had Egyptian slaves. 1Samuel 30:13

The Amalekites / Hyksos came up from Egypt and attacked the Israelites with the Midianites and Philistines during the period of the Judges. 1Samuel 15:2 Judges 6:1-10 Judges 10:1-18

The Israelites had encounters with the Hyksos / Amalekites at the beginning and end of the second intermediate period. Exodus 17:8-16 1Samuel 15:1-34 1Samuel 27:1-12 1Samuel 30:1-31


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