Apopi II (Agog II – Agag) was the last ruler of the Hyksos / Amalekites of the 15-16th dynasty in Lower Egypt (the last Pharaoh of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt).[1]  He was expelled from Egypt by Kahmose of the Theban 17th dynasty and his brother Ahmose I (who founded the 18th dynasty). Apopi II (Agag) was caputured alive by King Saul of Israel who virtually decimated the Hyksos / Amalekites after they were ejected from Egypt.[2]Agag / Apopi II was brought before Samuel, the last Judge of Israel, who put him to death.[3]

The End of Hyksos Tyranny

The Hyksos (Amalekites) ruled over Lower Egypt from their fortress at Avaris.  They maintained strong garrisons throughout the country and subjugated the regional Nomarchs.  The ‘Shepherd Kings’ (Hyksos) demanded tributes from the regional governors (Nomarchs).  The Princes (Nomarchs) of the various provinces of Egypt (Nomes), of which there were 42, were treated in a distainful manner as described in the Sallier Papyrus I.[4]Apopi II (Agog II / Agag) in Avaris (Lower Egypt) use to send humiliating demands to Seqenenre (2nd last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty based in Thebes (Upper Egypt)).  Seqenenre was arrested and brought to Avaris.  Seqenenre’s son Kahmose lead a rebellion against the Hyksos who were eventually defeated with the help of King Saul from Israel.  The Hyksos / Amalekites were forced to leave Egypt.  Ahmose I, brother of Kahmose, son of Seqenenre, became the first pharaoh of the New Kingdom / 18th dynasty. It was Saul who captured Apopi II alive and all but anihilated the Hyksos / Amalekites after they left Egypt.  Apopi II was taken to Samuel who put him to death.[4]

Biblical References

1Samuel 15:1-341Samuel 15:20-34

Links

[John D Keyser  The downfall of Egypt and the Amalekites of the Bible.]

[Ages in Chaos Immanuel Velikovski]

References

  1. [1] John D Keyser  The downfall of Egypt and the Amalekites of the Bible
  2. [1Samuel 15:1-34 ] 1Sam 15:1-34  Saul Defeats the Amalekites
  3. [1Samuel 15:20-34 ] 1Sam 15:20-34  Agag captured alive by Saul and put to death by Samuel
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ages in Chaos Immanuel Velikovski Ages in Chaos.

Chronicle of the Pharaohs  The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt.  Peter A Clayton.  Thames and Hudson 2006  ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9


Hyksos  – Amalekites  – Amu

Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. When Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobeknefru had to become pharaoh.  She only lived for 4 years (possibly 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep as a result of the Exodus (1446BC).  This brought about the end of the 13th dynasty. Egypt became vulnerable to invasion as a result of plagues and the loss of it’s leader, it’s army, it’s slaves and it’s chariots.

The Hyksos seem to have invaded Egypt shortly after the Exodus.  They may even have crossed paths with the departing Israelites shortly after they crossed the Red Sea. [1]

The Hyksos took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period).  The Hyksos were ‘foreigners’ to Egypt and are thought to have originated in Arabia.  The word ‘Hyksos’ means ‘Foreigner’.  They were able to take over Lower Egypt with very little resistance.  [2]

Manetho attributes 4 dynasties to the Hykos (dynasties 14-17). [1]  Dynasties 15 -16, at least, were synonymous with Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt.  [3]

The 17th dynasty was contemporay with the 16th dynasty; but in a different part of the country (Upper Egypt).

The Hyksos were eventually defeated in an uprising lead by the family of Ahmose I from Upper Egypt.  Ahmose I lost his father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose fighting the Hyksos.  The Hyksos were forced to leave Egypt and Ahmose I (Nebpehtyre) became the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (which was the beginning of New Kingdom of Egypt as it is known).  Ahmose I became the pharaoh at a very young age and was coregent with his mother Queen Aahotep in the early part of his reign.

As the Hyksos were leaving Egypt and looking for a new home, they appear to have had another encounter with the Israelites when Saul and David were ruling. [1]

The rule of the Hyksos constitutes most of Egypt’s second intermediate period (when foreigners ruled between the end of the Middle Kingdom (12-13th dynasty) and the beginning of the New Kingdom (18th dynasty)).

The Hyksos ruled in Lower Egypt for a period of around 400 years starting soon after the 13th dynasty when the Exodus of the Jews occurred. This period is contemporary with the Israelites  40 years in the wilderness and the time of the Judges in Israel. It fits with the Hyksos being the Amalekites of the Bible in every respect.

The Amalekites / Hyksos were rulers that had Egyptian slaves. 1Samuel 30:13

The Amalekites / Hyksos came up from Egypt and attacked the Israelites with the Midianites and Philistines during the period of the Judges. 1Samuel 15:2 Judges 6:1-10 Judges 10:1-18

The Israelites had encounters with the Hyksos / Amalekites at the beginning and end of the second intermediate period. Exodus 17:8-16 1Samuel 15:1-341Samuel 27:1-12 1Samuel 30:1-31

The Hyksos were the Amalekites of the Bible

Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. When Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobeknefru had to become pharaoh.  She only lived for 4 years (possibly 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep as a result of the Exodus (1446BC).  This brought about the end of the 13th dynasty.  Egypt became vulnerable to invasion as a result of plagues and the loss of it’s leader, it’s army, it’s slaves and it’s chariots.

The Hyksos seem to have invaded Egypt shortly after the Exodus.  They may even have crossed paths with the departing Israelites shortly after they crossed the Red Sea. [3]

As the Israelites were leaving Egypt, the met up with the Hyksos (Amalekites) as they were leaving.  The Amalekites attacked them but Joshua and his men prevailed as Moses held his arms up for the men to see on top of a hill.  The Amalekites passed by but Moses prophesied that they would always be at war with Israel until their final destruction. Exodus 17:8-16Numbers 24:20

The Hyksos took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period).  The Hyksos were ‘foreigners’ to Egypt and are thought to have originated in Arabia.  The word ‘Hyksos’ means ‘Foreigner’.  They were able to take over Lower Egypt with very little resistance.  [4]

The Bible records that the Amalekites (Hyksos) would often attack Israel during the time of the Judges along with other nations such as MidianJudges 6:1-10Judges 10:1-18Judges 12:15

The ancient historian Manetho attributes 4 dynasties to the Hykos (dynasties 14-17). [3]  Dynasties 15 -16, at least, were synonymous with Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt.

The 17th dynasty was contemporay with the 16th dynasty; but in a different part of the country (Upper Egypt).

Seqenenre, the father of Ahmose I lead an uprising starting in Upper Egypt forcing the Hyksos to leave Egypt heading North.

As the Hyksos were leaving Egypt and looking for a new home, they appear to have had another encounter with the Israelites when Saul and David were ruling.

Saul attacked the Amalekites / Hyksos as instructed by Samuel the last Judge of Israel.  He defeated them all the way from Havilah to Shur, near the eastern border of Egypt, not sparing any.  Saul did, however, captured the Hyksos (Amalekite) king alive (his name was Agag) and he kept their cattle as plunder.  Agag was brought to Samuel who put him to death but he was not happy with Saul for not following his instructions fully.  1Samuel 15:1-34

Later, at a time when David was fleeing from Saul, he was living in Philistine territory he raided the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites. From ancient times these peoples had lived in the land extending to Shur and Egypt. Whenever David attacked an area, he did not leave a man or woman alive, but took sheep and cattle, donkeys and camels, and clothes.  1Samuel 27:1-12

Once David’s camp was raided by some Amalekites (Hyksos) and his wives, sons and daughters were taken captive.  David and his band of 400men pursued the Amalekites and recovered all that was stolen and completely destroyed the Amalekites taking their herds as plunder.  1Samuel 30:1-31

In another battle with the Philistines Saul was critically injured but it was an Amalekite (Hyksos) that found him and helped finish him off.  1Samuel 31:1-13

The Amalekite who killed Saul took proof to David and was slain for his efforts.  2Samuel 1:1-16

David eventually wiped out the final remnants of the Amalekites in Israel and dedicated the plunder to the LORD; God of the Israelites.  2Samuel 8:8-131Chronicles 4:43

Biblical References

Exodus 17:8-16

Numbers 24:20

Judges 6:1-10

Judges 10:1-18

Judges 12:15

1Samuel 30:13

1Samuel 15:3

1Samuel 15:18

1Samuel 15:1-34

1Samuel 27:1-12

1Samuel 30:1-31

1Samuel 31:1-13

2Samuel 1:1-16

2Samuel 8:8-13

1Chronicles 4:43

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 The Hykoso identified  Terry Hurlbut http://www.examiner.com/article/the-hyksos-identified
  2. Who were the Hyksos? Save-Soderbergh, t. (1951) The Hyksos rule in Egypt, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society.
  3.    Peter A Clayton  Chronicle of the Pharaohs  The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt.  Thames and Hudson 2006  ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9

Unwrapping the Pharaohs  How Egyptian Archaeology confirms the Biblical Timeline.  John Ashton & David Down.  Master Books 2006.  ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9ISBN 0-89051-468-2

Chronicle of the Pharaohs  The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt.  Peter A Clayton.  Thames and Hudson 2006  ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9

[Roger Henry.  Synchronized Chronology Rethinking Middle East Antiquity]

Links

[Debbie Hurn – The Amelekites – Were they the Hyksos?]

[John D Keyser  The downfall of Egypt and the Amelekites of the Bible.]

[Ralph S Pacini  In search of Amelek.]

[The time of the Judges in the Promised Land]

[Chart – The period of the Judges and the Amelekite / Hysos occupation of Egypt.]

[Terry Hurlbut  The Hyksos Identified]

[Save-Soderbergh, T.  Who were the Hyksos?


Ahmose I – Nebpehtyre

Ahmose I was the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. He was a descendant of the 17th dynasty which was based in Thebes in Upper Egypt. His father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose were the last 2 pharaohs of the 17th dynasty. His family, originating from Thebes, lead a rebellion against the Hyksos who were foreign invaders who had controlled Lower Egypt for some 400yrs following the Exodus of the Jews which left Egypt crippled. (This was Egypt’s second intermediate period; otherwise known as dynasties 15 & 16). The 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt was contemporary with the 16th dynasty in Lower Egypt. Ahmose I’s father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose were killed fighting the Hyksos. The Hyksos were finally defeated with the help of King Saul and David of Israel. Ahmose I began the 18th dynasty at a very young age and was co-regent with his mother Queen Aahotep initially. [1] The 18th dynasty was actually a continuation of the 17th dynasty, but was expanded to include Lower Egypt as the Hyksos had been forced to leave. The ancient historian Manetho decided to make this a new dynasty even though it was the same family line as the 17th dynasty. Ahmose I reigned from Thebes for 25 years and 4 months. The Revised Dates of his reign: 1021BC – 996BC approximately [2]

Statue head of Ahmose I - Founder of the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

Statue head of Ahmose I – Founder of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.

The Second Intermediate Period

Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. When Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobeknefru had to become pharaoh.  She only lived for 4 years (possibly 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep as a result of the Exodus (1446BC).  This brought about the end of the 13th dynasty.  Egypt became vulnerable to invasion as a result of plagues and the loss of it’s leader, it’s army, it’s slaves and it’s chariots.

The Hyksos seem to have invaded Egypt shortly after the Exodus.  They may even have crossed paths with the departing Israelites shortly after they crossed the Red Sea. [3]

As the Israelites were leaving Egypt, the met up with the Hyksos (Amalekites) as they were leaving.  The Amalekites attacked them but Joshua and his men prevailed as Moses held his arms up for the men to see on top of a hill.  The Amalekites passed by but Moses prophesied that they would always be at war with Israel until their final destruction. Exodus 17:8-16Numbers 24:20

The Hyksos took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period).  The Hyksos were ‘foreigners’ to Egypt and are thought to have originated in Arabia.  The word ‘Hyksos’ means ‘Foreigner’.  They were able to take over Lower Egypt with very little resistance.  [4]

The Bible records that the Amalekites (Hyksos) would often attack Israel during the time of the Judges along with other nations such as MidianJudges 6:1-10Judges 10:1-18Judges 12:15

The ancient historian Manetho attributes 4 dynasties to the Hykos (dynasties 14-17). [3]  Dynasties 15 -16, at least, were synonymous with Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt.

The 17th dynasty was contemporay with the 16th dynasty; but in a different part of the country (Upper Egypt).

Seqenenre, the father of Ahmose I lead an uprising starting in Upper Egypt forcing the Hyksos to leave Egypt heading North.

As the Hyksos were leaving Egypt and looking for a new home, they appear to have had another encounter with the Israelites when Saul and David were ruling.

Saul attacked Amalekites / Hyksos as instructed by Samuel the last Judge of Israel.  He defeated them all the way from Havilah to Shur, near the eastern border of Egypt, not sparing any.   Saul did, however, captured the Hyksos (Amalekite) king alive (his name was Agag) and he kept their cattle as plunder.   Agag was brought to Samuel who put him to death but he was not happy with Saul for not following his instructions fully.  1Samuel 15:1-34

Later, at a time when David was fleeing from Saul, when he was living in Philistine territory, he raided the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites. From ancient times these peoples had lived in the land extending to Shur and Egypt. Whenever David attacked an area, he did not leave a man or woman alive, but took sheep and cattle, donkeys and camels, and clothes.  1Samuel 27:1-12

Once David’s camp was raided by some Amalekites (Hyksos) and his wives, sons and daughters were taken captive.  David and his band of 400men pursued the Amalekites and recovered all that was stolen and completely destroyed the Amalekites taking their herds as plunder.  1Samuel 30:1-31

In another battle with the Philistines, Saul was critically injured but it was an Amalekite (Hyksos) that found him and helped finish him off.  1Samuel 31:1-13

The Amalekite who killed Saul took proof to David and was slain for his efforts.  2Samuel 1:1-16

David eventually wiped out the final remnants of the Amalekites in Israel and dedicated the plunder to the LORD; God of the Israelites.  2Samuel 8:8-131Chronicles 4:43

Egypt’s New Kingdom

The Hyksos were eventually defeated in an uprising lead by the family of Ahmose I from Upper Egypt. Ahmose I lost his father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose fighting the Hyksos. The Hyksos were forced to leave Egypt and Ahmose I (Nebpehtyre) became the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (which was the beginning of New Kingdom of Egypt as it is known). Ahmose I became the pharaoh at a very young age and was coregent with his mother Queen Aahotep in the early part of his reign. He reigned for 25 years and was a contemporary of Saul and David. [1]  The Theban 17th dynasty situated in Upper Egypt was actually contemporary with the Hyksos 16th dynasty situated in Lower Egypt.  The 18th dynasty was realy a continuation of the 17th dynasty but the boundaries had expanded to include Lower Egypt.  Ahmose I was the son of Seqenenre and the brother of Kahmose who were the last two pharaohs of the 17th dynasty.  As the Hyksos had been defeated and forced to leave Egypt, the ancient historian Manetho decided to make this a new dynasty.

References
1.↑ 1.0 1.1 Peter A Clayton Chronicle of the Pharaohs The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson 2006 ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9
2.↑ Unwrapping the Pharaohs How Egyptian Archaeology confirms the Biblical Timeline. John Ashton & David Down. Master Books 2006. ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9ISBN 0-89051-468-2
3.↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 The Hykoso identified Terry Hurlbut http://www.examiner.com/article/the-hyksos-identified
4.↑ Who were the Hyksos? Save-Soderbergh, t. (1951) The Hyksos rule in Egypt, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society.


The Bible is a reliable source of historical information. It contains the historical records and the chronicles of Israel. It is not just a record of God’s dealings with mankind. It is God’s word. The Exodus of Israel can be dated to 1446BC as the Bible records that there were 480 years from the Exodus to the buiding of the Temple by Solomon (1Kings 6:1 ) and the date that the foundations of the Temple were laid by Solomon is agreed upon by most Archaeologists to be 966BC. (seeArchaeological Evidence for Moses and the Israelites in the 12th dynasty of Egypt) Moses was 80 yrs old at the time of the Exodus of Israel ( ).

If the Chronology of Egyptian History was as reliable as the Bible then it would be fairly easy to ‘look up’ Egyptian records and see which Pharaohs were ruling at the time. Unfortunately, the dates of Egyptian dynasties and the dates of Pharaohs reigns (the Egyptian chronology) based primarily on Manetho’s records has turned out to be quite erroneous because some of the dynasties ran in parallel (in the north and south of the country) and Pharaohs often co-reigned together at the beginning and end of their reigns. Consequently, the time frame of Egyptian history is substantially shorter than the Traditional Chronology which was based on sequential dynasties, some of which have been counted twice (see David Down).

Due to the inaccuracies of the Traditional Chronology, a number of Egyptian correlates of Moses have been put forwards by various people over the ages. Better understanding of the Egyptian Chronology requires a reassessment of the Archaeological Evidence. Candidates that were identified according to dates alone, that were a poor character profile match for Moses can now be excluded. And candidates that seemed to match the character profile of Moses exactly but were thought unlikely to be Moses based on the dates can now be reconsidered. Amenemhet IV of the 12th dynasty of Egypt is one such candidate that is a very good Character Profile match for Moses but thought to be unlikely because the Traditional Egyptian Chronology dated his reign to be around 1798-1786BC.

In a revised Egyptian Chronology the dates of Amenemhet IV‘s co-regency are likely to be around 1495-1486BC making it highly likely that Amenemhet IV was Moses of the Bible. This is supported by strong archaeological evidence that the Israelites were slaves in Egypt during the 12th dynasty and left Egypt in the 13th dynasty before the Hyksos invaded (or took over) Egypt to start the 15th dynasty (the second intermediate period).

18th dynasty candidates for Moses can now be excluded. Israel had little to do with the Hyksos when they were in Egypt and the defeat of the Hyksos at the beginning of the 18th dynasty was NOT the Exodus of Israel. The first 18th dynasty Pharaohs were contemporaries of Saul, David and Solomon. Saul seems to have encountered the Hyksos (the Amelekites) after they were ejected from Egypt; 400yrs after they took power! This was the end of the second intermediate period and the beginning of Egypt’s New Kingdom (the 18th dynasty). The second intermediate period, when the Hyksos were ruling in Egypt (dynasties 15 & 16), coincides with the period of the Judges in Israel.


Timeline and Chronology of the Judges of Israel in the Bible


The Time of the Judges